Notes on Psalm 72.
These Notes Are From The Companion Bible.

   A Psalm °for Solomon.

   Title. for Solomon. Not of, but concerning. See Epilogue by David for his son Solomon, and for his "Greater Son", the Messiah. Written after Solomon's second investiture, 1 Chronicles 29:23 (921 B.C). The year before David's death.



Psalm 72:1

   1.  Give °the king thy °judgments, O °God, And Thy °righteousness unto the °king's son.

   the king: that is to say, David himself.

   judgments = just decisions (of David regarding Solomon).

   God. Hebrew Elohim. Appendix 4. I.

   righteousness: that is to say, in all his (Solomon's) judgments, according to 1 Kings 3:5 - 9. 1 Chronicles 29:19, and 28:5, 7.

   king's sons = Solomon; but to be yet fulfilled in Christ.



Psalm 72:2

   2.  He shall °judge Thy People with °righteousness, And Thy °poor with °judgment.

   judge etc. = rule in righteousness.

   righteousness: that is to say, in all his (Solomon's) judgments, according to 1 Kings 3:5 - 9. 1 Chronicles 29:19, and 28:5, 7.

   poor = oppressed (plural). Note Psalm 70:5 wretched. Hebrew 'anah. Note Proverbs 6:11 Poverty = need. There are six words rendered poor or poverty in Proverbs : (1) rush = in want of necessaries of life (6:11; 10:4, 15; 13:7, 8 18, 23; 14:20; 17:5; 18:23; 19:1, 7, 22; 22:2, 7; 24:34; 28:3, 6, 19, 27; 29:13; 30:8; 31:7). (2) dal = impoverished, renduced (10:15; 14:31; 19:4, 17; 22:9, 16, 22, 22; 28:3, 8, 11, 15; 29:7, 14). (3) heser = in want (11:24; 21:17; 28:22). (4) 'anah = wretched (14:21). (5) 'ebyon = destitute, helpless; deficient in will and wealth (14:31). (6) yarash = dispossessed (20:13; 23:21; 30:9).

   judgment = justice.



Psalm 72:3

   3.  The mountains shall bring °peace to the people, And the little hills, by righteousness.

   peace = prosperity.



Psalm 72:4

   4.  He shall °judge the °poor of the People, He shall save the °children of the needy, And shall break in pieces the oppressor.

   judge = vindicate.

   poor = oppressed (plural). Note Psalm 70:5 wretched. Hebrew 'anah. Note Proverbs 6:11 Poverty = need. There are six words rendered poor or poverty in Proverbs : (1) rush = in want of necessaries of life (6:11; 10:4, 15; 13:7, 8 18, 23; 14:20; 17:5; 18:23; 19:1, 7, 22; 22:2, 7; 24:34; 28:3, 6, 19, 27; 29:13; 30:8; 31:7). (2) dal = impoverished, renduced (10:15; 14:31; 19:4, 17; 22:9, 16, 22, 22; 28:3, 8, 11, 15; 29:7, 14). (3) heser = in want (11:24; 21:17; 28:22). (4) 'anah = wretched (14:21). (5) 'ebyon = destitute, helpless; deficient in will and wealth (14:31). (6) yarash = dispossessed (20:13; 23:21; 30:9).

   children = sons.



Psalm 72:5

   5  They shall fear Thee as long as the sun and moon endure, Throughout all generations.



Psalm 72:6

   6  He shall come down °like rain upon the mown grass: As showers that water the earth.

   like rain = Compare 2Samuel 23:4.



Psalm 72:7

   7  In his days shall °the righteous flourish; And abundance of peace so long as the moon endureth.

   the righteous. Some codices, with Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, read "righteousness".



Psalm 72:8

   8  He shall have dominion also °from sea to sea, And from °the river unto the ends of the earth.

   from sea to sea. From the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf.

   the river: that is to say, the Euphrates. Same Figure as above.



Psalm 72:9

   9  They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him; And his enemies shall °lick the dust.

   lick the dust. Put by Figure of Speech Metonymy (of the Adjunct), Appendix 6, for utter subjugation.



Psalm 72:10

   10  The kings of °Tarshish and of the °isles shall bring presents: The kings of °Sheba and Seba shall °offer gifts.

   Tarshish. On the west. Note 1 Kings 10:22. navy of Tharshis = Tharshish ships, a name for large ocean-going ships (like English "East-Indiamen"). When mentioned as a place it is identified by Oppert with Tartessis = the Andalusia of to-day, noted for silver (not gold), iron, tin, and lead (Jeremiah 10:9. Ezekiel 27:12). They sailed from Tyre to the West Mediterranean, and from Ezion-geber to Ophir (Arabia, India, and East Africa), 9:26 - 28 and 10:11.

   isles = coastlands, or maritime countries.

   Sheba, etc. On the east and south.

   offer gifts = bring near their presents. Appendix 43. II. iii.



Psalm 72:11

   11  Yea, all kings shall fall down before him : All nations shall serve him.



Psalm 72:12

   12  For he shall deliver °the needy when he crieth; The °poor also, and him that hath no helper.

   the needy = a helpless one. Hebrew 'ebyon. Note Proverbs 6:11 Poverty = need. There are six words rendered poor or poverty in Proverbs : (1) rush = in want of necessaries of life (6:11; 10:4, 15; 13:7, 8 18, 23; 14:20; 17:5; 18:23; 19:1, 7, 22; 22:2, 7; 24:34; 28:3, 6, 19, 27; 29:13; 30:8; 31:7). (2) dal = impoverished, renduced (10:15; 14:31; 19:4, 17; 22:9, 16, 22, 22; 28:3, 8, 11, 15; 29:7, 14). (3) heser = in want (11:24; 21:17; 28:22). (4) 'anah = wretched (14:21). (5) 'ebyon = destitute, helpless; deficient in will and wealth (14:31). (6) yarash = dispossessed (20:13; 23:21; 30:9).

   poor = oppressed (plural). Note Psalm 70:5 wretched. Hebrew 'anah. Note Proverbs 6:11 Poverty = need. There are six words rendered poor or poverty in Proverbs : (1) rush = in want of necessaries of life (6:11; 10:4, 15; 13:7, 8 18, 23; 14:20; 17:5; 18:23; 19:1, 7, 22; 22:2, 7; 24:34; 28:3, 6, 19, 27; 29:13; 30:8; 31:7). (2) dal = impoverished, renduced (10:15; 14:31; 19:4, 17; 22:9, 16, 22, 22; 28:3, 8, 11, 15; 29:7, 14). (3) heser = in want (11:24; 21:17; 28:22). (4) 'anah = wretched (14:21). (5) 'ebyon = destitute, helpless; deficient in will and wealth (14:31). (6) yarash = dispossessed (20:13; 23:21; 30:9).



Psalm 72:13

   13  He shall spare the °poor and °needy, And shall save the °souls of °the needy.

   poor = improverished. Hebrew dal. Note Proverbs 6:11 Poverty = need. There are six words rendered poor or poverty in Proverbs : (1) rush = in want of necessaries of life (6:11; 10:4, 15; 13:7, 8 18, 23; 14:20; 17:5; 18:23; 19:1, 7, 22; 22:2, 7; 24:34; 28:3, 6, 19, 27; 29:13; 30:8; 31:7). (2) dal = impoverished, renduced (10:15; 14:31; 19:4, 17; 22:9, 16, 22, 22; 28:3, 8, 11, 15; 29:7, 14). (3) heser = in want (11:24; 21:17; 28:22). (4) 'anah = wretched (14:21). (5) 'ebyon = destitute, helpless; deficient in will and wealth (14:31). (6) yarash = dispossessed (20:13; 23:21; 30:9).

   the needy = a helpless one. Hebrew 'ebyon. Note Proverbs 6:11 Poverty = need. There are six words rendered poor or poverty in Proverbs : (1) rush = in want of necessaries of life (6:11; 10:4, 15; 13:7, 8 18, 23; 14:20; 17:5; 18:23; 19:1, 7, 22; 22:2, 7; 24:34; 28:3, 6, 19, 27; 29:13; 30:8; 31:7). (2) dal = impoverished, renduced (10:15; 14:31; 19:4, 17; 22:9, 16, 22, 22; 28:3, 8, 11, 15; 29:7, 14). (3) heser = in want (11:24; 21:17; 28:22). (4) 'anah = wretched (14:21). (5) 'ebyon = destitute, helpless; deficient in will and wealth (14:31). (6) yarash = dispossessed (20:13; 23:21; 30:9).

   souls. Hebrew nephesh. Appendix 13.



Psalm 72:14

   14  He shall °redeem °their soul from deceit and violence: And precious shall their blood be in his sight.

   redeem. Hebrew ga'al. Note Exodus 6:6; redeem. Hebrew ga'al = to redeem (from charge, by payment). First occasion in connection with Israel. Not padah.. Note 13:13 redeem = ransom. Hebrew padah = to redeem (from bondage, by power). First occasion. Not g'aal.

   their soul = them, or their life. Hebrew nephesh. Appendix 13.



Psalm 72:15

   15  And °he shall °live, And to him shall be °given of the °gold of Sheba: Prayer also shall be made °for him continually: And °daily shall he be praised.

   he shall live. The accent (rebia) "he" marks it as emphatic, and as to be distinguished from the plurals of the preceding verses, and renderd "they", as it is in Revised Version. Note that the members in verses 2 - 4 and verses 12 - 14, which treat Messiah's goodness to the poor. It is in verse 10 ("Hd") and verse 15 ("Hd") that we have them, and their gifts to Him. He, the Head, delivers and saves them; and they, in verse - 15, bring to Him liberal hand, a praying heart, and a praising tongue.

   live = live for ever. Leviticus 18:5 live = "live again" in resurrection life (Revelation 20:5). The Chaldee paraphrase = "shall live by them to life eternal". Sol. Jarchi, "live in the world that is to come". Compare the other passages where "live" is used in this sense: Ezekiel 13:21; 20:11. Luke 10:28. Romans 10:5. Galatians 3:12. Nehemiah 9:29. Habakkuk 2:4. Romans 1:17. Hebrews 10:38 etc. In this sense the verb is used more often than is generally thought. Compare Isaiah 26:19; 38:16: 55:3. Ezekiel 18:19; 33:19; 37:3, 5, 6, 14. Hosea 6:2. Amos 5:4, etc. The spiritual authorities of the second temple so interpreted the phrase. Thus "eternal life", by faith, is set in contrast with eternal life by works.

   given, etc. Solomon the type (1 Kings 10:2, 10; 2 Chronicles 9:1). Fulfilment in Christ the Antitype.

   gold. Figure of Speech Synecdoche (of Species), Appendix 6, "gold" but being put for precious gifts. Compare Isiah 60:6.

   for = to.

   daily = all the day.



Psalm 72:16

   16  There shall be an °handful of corn in the earth upon the top of the mountains; The fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon: And they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth.

   handful = abundance.

   corn = fine corn.



Psalm 72:17

   17  His name shall endure for ever: His name shall be continued as long as the sun: °And men shall be °blessed °in him. All nations shall call him °blessed.

   And men shall be blessed in him: All nations shall call him blessed = Yea, all nations shall be blessed in him - shall call him happy. "Blessed" is not the same word as in the preceding line. Hebrew 'ashar, cognate with 'ashrey. See Appendix 63. VI.

   in him. Thus confirming the promise to Abraham. See Genesis 12:3; 18:8; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14.



Psalm 72:18

   18  °Blessed be °the LORD °God, the °God of Israel, Who only doeth wondrous things.

   Blessed, etc. This doxology closes the second book of the Psalms. Hebrew barak, not 'asher.

   the LORD. Hebrew Jehovah. Appendix 4. II.

   God. Some codices omit "Elohim" here, with the Septuagint, Syriac and Vulgate.

   God. Hebrew Elohim. Appendix 4. I.



Psalm 72:19

   19  And °blessed be His glorious °name for ever : And let the whole earth be °filled with His glory ; Amen, and Amen.

   blessed, etc. This doxology closes the second book of the Psalms. Hebrew barak, not 'asher.

   name = self. Note Psalm 20:1. Put by Figure of Speech Metonymy (Adjunct), Appendix 6, for the person himself. Occurs three times in this Psalm: verse 1, the Defending Name; verse 5, the Displayed Name; verse 7, the Delivering Name.

   filled, etc. Compare Numbers 14:21.



Psalm 72:20

   20  The prayers of David the son of Jesse °are ended.

   are ended = are accomplished. When this Psalm is realised, all prophecy concerning Israel will be fulfilled: according to Daniel 9:24, and see 2Samuel 23:1, where compare the title, "son of Jesse".




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